What is a sentence? The topic of what is the sentence often turns up in academic discussions. What is the sentence is not only an enigma for the student of language but also of many linguists. Although there is no one common answer to what is a sentence, it is useful to think about the question and attempt to find an answer.
A sentence consists of a part called a verb and parts called a subject and a verb. In non-linguistic grammar, a sentence consists of a single literary unit, which can be a word or a phrase, containing one or more grammatical words that are properly linked in a verbal pattern. In functional grammar, a sentence consists of a unit of definite verbal elements that can be either an individual word or a phrase. So a sentence in English consists of a subject, verb, object, and definite verb or expression. So it could be said that a complete sentence contains three parts.
What is the sentence structure? A simple sentence consists of a single clause, a subject, and a verb or infinitizer. Subject and verb are always placed at the end of a clause, unless the clause is a conjunction, in which case it is in the main body of the text. The subject, in a simple sentence, can either be a person (in the case of a verb) or an object (in the case of a preposition).
Dependent clauses. A dependent clause is one whose subject is dependent on the action or event it modifies. A simple sentence could be “The man loves his dog” but “The dog loves the man”. In a dependent clause the subject of the verb is always intended to be definite (as in the “the dog” in the second example above), and the verb always has a subject (the person being described or about to be described).
Complementary verbs. A complementing verb is one that serves a purpose beyond the main verb in a complex sentence. For example, “The man loves his dog.” In this example, unlike the simple sentence above, the verb “loves” has a secondary meaning that is independent of the main verb “loves”.
Dependent clauses. A dependent clause is one that can both be a direct object and a complement of another verb or one that depends on another verb for its completion. A complete sentence with all these elements together is called a complex-complex sentence.
Perfective tense. A perfective tense describes a verb which always means “to be”, as in “The man loves his dog”. The participles in this sentence are “to be”, “in order to be” and “with the help of”. The future tense describes an action (getting something) in the future, while the present tense describes an event that is taking place at the present. A perfective tense is also very common in imperative and commands, where it tends to make the actions of the verbs much more concrete.
As a final note: A conjunction cannot stand in the place of a verb (such as “the man loves his dog”). A conjunction only joins the two together; it cannot stand in place of the verb. What is a sentence made up of is actually a combination of the basic elements described in this article, and it can be confusing if you don’t understand these rules.
Compound sentence. A compound sentence consists of one independent clause and at least one dependent clause. An independent clause refers to one thing, while a dependent clause refers to one or more things. A sentence with an independent clause is usually less structured than a compound sentence, but can still have a number of independent clauses, all with dependent clauses.
Simple sentences. There are three types of simple sentences: Reflexive, Stressed, and Aggadic. Each type exhibits a certain amount of order. Reflexive (or simply “mediate” and “simple”) sentences are the shortest ones, while the others are either stressed or unstrung.
Aggadic. A simplex (or single independent clause) consisting of at least one subject and at least one verb is an Aggadic sentence. A complex sentence is made up of more than one independent clause and at least one dependent clause.