Science has long been a source of fascination for those who are looking to explore life, the universe and everything around them. From the earliest days of recorded history, science has been shaped by questions that have asked how the world works, what it looks like and what is out there in the vastness of space. Over time, science has attempted to answer these questions through a process of scientific investigation, observation, experimentation and analysis. The result has brought us to the technological advancements we have today.
What is science? Science is an independent systematic enterprise which aims to build and organize knowledge in the form of predictions and testable theoretical explanations about the universe and nature. There are two main theories that science generally agrees upon. These are: (a) Physics, which study mechanics and the laws that govern the interaction of matter; and (b) Chemistry, which studies chemical reactions and the relationship between the various substances. The major areas of focus for science include: space science which studies the properties of space, time, composition and structure, earth sciences, which include the study of how living things on earth are related to the environment, physical sciences which study the physical nature of matter, astronomy which investigates objects in the visible and ultraviolet range, nuclear science which focuses on the properties of atoms and molecules and cosmology which study the origins, composition and future of the universe and nature.
In order to understand what is science, it is helpful to have an understanding of what scientific research is. Scientific research is an investigation into the nature and properties of something using various methods including observation, experimentation, measurement, analysis and theory. Many different types of scientific research produce different results, which are subject to differing theories. Some of the most common methods of scientific research are: observational research, experimental research, historical research, computer science and natural science.
Observation is one of the key factors when investigating the phenomena being studied. It is important to make observations in order to prove or disprove a theory. When carrying out scientific research, it is important to carry out tests to be able to falsify any theories. There are two methods of falsification; the first is to carry out the test in a controlled environment and the second is to carry out the test without using any outside resources.
The second method of falsification is when a hypothesis is falsified because there is no scientific knowledge to back it up. If there is not sufficient evidence to support the theory, then it must be rejected. Once a hypothesis has been rejected, there is no longer any hope of refuting it because then it has already been proven beyond reasonable doubt. The main reason for dismissing theories is because they are unable to provide enough evidence for them to be considered part of what is science.
The third method of scientific research is experimentation. This involves the use of machines and devices to observe or test a theory. Once again, it is important to carry out experiments with control groups to be able to falsify any theories. If there is insufficient evidence to support any theory, then it is best to discard that theory from your mind.
The fourth method used to determine if a theory is a worthy theory is to carry out observations and study. If an observation supports a theory, then it can be considered to be correct. The social sciences and other empirical levels rely on observations and studies to be able to falsify or dismiss theories. In the social sciences, observations and studies are using to create generalizations about particular cases and types of phenomena. For example, if there is sufficient evidence to show that discrimination at a particular place is not caused by genetics, then it would not be possible for genetics to cause discrimination at any other place or at any other time. The social sciences rely on the application of the scientific method.
How do the scientific methods apply to us? They apply to all areas of life, from the macroscopic to the microscopic, from the scientific level to the practical level. The scientific knowledge that we have gained through the ages has given us the ability to explore the universe and understand its laws and patterns. As long as there is life, there will be science.