What Is National Budget

36

What is National Budget? A budget is a formal financial account of all expenditures, which is prepared by the government or some other authority representing the view of the state about its financial needs for the year ahead. It lays down the plans for governmental activities for the year ahead. A government’s annual budget is prepared in conjunction with the central administration and is released for public scrutiny.

How are the budgets prepared? The budget is prepared for the current year as well as the medium and long term periods. The first step in preparing a budget involves estimating the direct and indirect expenses arising from conducting government operations. The indirect effects of government operations are measured using an expenditure model based on direct and indirect cost and services revenue elements.

What is National Debt? This is a sum of money owed to the nation by individuals, governments, corporations, etc. The national budget does not include debt accumulated by the federal government. Government debt arises out of borrowing and is reflected in the national debt.

What is Federal Debt? Federal government borrowing includes debt acquired by governments at the Federal level. Federal government borrowing includes interest on loans, grants, and other types of loans. This budget does not include debt secured by property or by securities. This budget just reflects what the spending by governments is doing. Federal debt is very high as compared to other countries’ debt.

What is a Revenue Budget? The revenue budget includes money being spent by the government for various purposes. In case of surplus spending, the budget deficit is also included. A revenue budget indicates the difference between total revenue collected (the surplus) and the deficit (excess).

How is the National Debt Budget Defined? The national debt budget is Deficit-EUR. The definition of deficit-equals surplus means that there is a current financial surplus or deficit and that the difference between the two is larger than the balance. For a country to have a national debt, its total gross domestic product (GDP) must be larger than the surplus. However, in most of the countries, a smaller excess or surplus means a relatively higher national debt.

What is the Intergovernmental Budget? The intergovernmental budget consists of budgets and documents submitted by governments of countries operating within the same economic area. This type of budget is usually prepared for a five-year period starting from the last year of the outgoing government.

How is Government Expenditure Structured? Governments maintain separate budgets for their operation and maintenance. There are central agencies that collect data on expenses incurred by the national government. Some of these include Central Secretariat, Department of Finance, Department of Internal Affairs, Comptroller General of Public Finance and even the Information Department of the Department of Budget.

What is the Central Government Financing? The Comptroller General of Public Finance prepares and submits the budget for the government. The Central Secretariat prepares the financial documents which are approved by the Secretariat before they are released to the government agencies. The Central Board of Excise and Customs collects taxes and makes sure that the appropriate licenses are in place to operate in the country.

What is National Debt? When it comes to government finance, there are a debt and a budget. The debt is what is required to be repaid by the government at some point of time. The budget is the funding amount that is needed for the operation and maintenance of the government. Every year, a budget is prepared, and it becomes the responsibility of the government to release this amount of money to the agencies and institutions that are undertaking public works.

What is the Controlling Body? The controlling body is the Cabinet, headed by the prime minister of the country. It is the president or the members of the legislature that decide what should be included in the budget and what should be deducted from it. The controlling body also prepares and disburses the budget. Other than these bodies, there are other organizations which have their role in controlling the budget.

What is the Multi-Budget Planning? The multi-budget planning is done by the Secretariat when preparing the national budget. This involves giving consideration to all the fiscal indicators such as receipts and payments, income and output, liabilities and assets, financing options, etc. The budget is prepared based on the analysis done by the Secretariat. It is released in the format in which it will ultimately be practiced by the government.