What is computer programming? Computer programming is the set of instructions that computer systems used to convert inputs (usually stored in memory) into outputs (usually stored on the computer’s hard drive). Programs are created to solve certain problems by manipulating the information contained in these programs. Most computer programs are run by a central computer (a processing unit), which can also be called the mainframe.
A computer is simply a machine which is able to be programmed to execute sets of instructions. Modern computers are able to do almost all kinds of calculations, including numerical analysis, optimization, and scientific computation. In a more high-level view, computer programs are used to control the operation of a computer or other devices.
The field of computer science itself was originally concerned with digital logic systems. This meant that a computer could only execute one kind of instruction at a time and would stop if it ran out of input/output resources. This meant that a computer would either store information temporarily for future use or must perform information systems in an efficient way so that current input/output resources are not wasted. In the late 1960s, another field developed to take over some of the logic requirements of the computer science field. This was known as information systems, and it grew into a separate career field from computer science.
Human-computer interaction is the study of how people interact with machines. It is sometimes referred to as Human-Computer Interaction, HCP, or just H CI. This field includes applications such as work at a human level and includes computer systems and software for complex human-computer interaction. Examples of components of this include user interaction, distributed computing, and knowledge representation. Other areas of concentration within the Human-Computer Interaction (HCP) field are visual computing, which refer to computer graphics, scene analysis, environment modeling, and optimization.
Computational linguistics deals with the study of how language choices affect the production and understanding of computer programs. It focuses on understanding human languages such as English and Spanish, but also takes into account writing conventions, cultural differences, and the variety of world languages. Examples of computational linguistics include NLP, ogy, and computational grammar. In NLP, the focus is on identifying the right strategies to use in dealing with people instead of simply analyzing a language’s grammar or syntax. In computational linguistics, programs are created that allow computers to understand natural conversations.
Artificial intelligence deals with the study and manipulation of software. Some areas of artificial intelligence research deal solely with the methods by which a computer system can learn, remember, and execute various tasks without being informed about those tasks or what they are required to do. Other areas of artificial intelligence research give machines capabilities that are more general like self-driving cars and self-piloted planes. These projects bring computer science a step closer to creating computers with human-level intelligence. The ultimate goal for these projects is to build computers that are able to reason like humans.
Data structures, which are part of what is computer science, are part of the larger field of software engineering. Data structures are used to store and manage large databases. Experts in this field are concerned primarily with the accuracy, efficiency, and reliability of computer systems. Many elements of data structures are related to algorithms, which are complicated mathematical formulas that tell computers what to do.
Operating systems are what is computer science for applications and devices that make up and run a computer. There are three main types of operating systems: desktop, laptop, and mainframe. Desktop operating systems operate on a single computer system while laptop and mainframe operating systems work on a variety of machines. Operating systems store and retrieve information from programs and other data and store them in a storage device called an operating system disk.